4 Декабря 2021
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Climate scheme spoils the nervous system

Against the backdrop of talk about reducing carbon dioxide emissions, unlike Western countries, only Russia is still engaged in business.

The final document adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) did not meet expectations.

Recall that the UN Climate Conferences are held within the framework of the Convention on Climate Change, adopted in 1994 and signed by more than 180 countries of the world, including all republics of the former USSR. In Paris, in 2015, participants almost agreed to restrain the increase in temperature on the planet from 2 ° C to pre-industrial levels. But especially impatient experts suggested limiting the temperature increase to a limit of 1.5 ° C. Is this real? So far, no one can confidently answer this question, but the task is set!

Changes in sentiment towards "faster," adjusting goals in the direction of "more radical" reflected the mood of the main "engines" of the climate agenda - the leading countries of the so-called "golden billion." It was they who created an atmosphere of inflated expectations, politicized the approach to climate problems. Not without attempts to hook Russia. US President Joe Biden distinguished himself at the G20 meeting in Rome. Barack Obama did not miss the opportunity to recall his attitude to the Russian Federation during a conference in Glasgow, the correspondent of The Moscow Post reports.

With claims for Mosenergo

And in vain. The position of our country in terms of emissions is SO2 better than the position of the United States. Russia's place in the "climate struggle" was designated by President Vladimir Putin at the G20 meeting. In particular, he said that the carbon intensity of the Russian economy over the past twenty years has decreased annually by an average of 2.7%. Russia's indicators are ahead of world indicators, better than those of the G-7 countries in this area.

Moscow, according to experts, slightly lags behind Denmark, the world leader in energy efficiency. "Just remember that all of Denmark is a couple of districts in Moscow, and the Mosenergo economy is many times larger and more complicated. So it can be confidently argued that Moscow has already made its energy transition to a significant extent, "said Yevgeny Gasho, academician-secretary of the energy section of the Russian Academy of Engineering.

During the summit of world leaders in Glasgow on the sidelines of the 26th session of the FCCC, the Russian president spoke about the problems of forest management and land use. Russia, having 20% of the world's forests within its borders, also relies on this unique resource. Forest ecosystems have significant potential for SO2 uptake and oxygen production.

For the Russian delegation, the main result of the Glasgow conference is the approval of a positive version of the rules for the implementation of the Paris Agreement for the Russian Federation. The revision of these rules takes into account Russian forest projects. This was recalled by the special representative of the president on climate issues Ruslan Edelgeriev.

Representatives of the Russian Federation called on conference participants to a practical climate policy, refrained from ambitious promises, insisted on withdrawing green projects from sanctions. The achievements of the FCCC in Glasgow include the fact that instruments have been agreed for the exchange of carbon units that the market can focus on.

For Russia, it was important that these mechanisms be available for a wide range of projects and forms of cooperation. Russian delegates supported the idea of ​ ​ recognizing nuclear energy as "carbon-neutral," emphasized the importance of forests and forest policies to solve climate problems. At the conference, a Russian pavilion with information on forest policy, the climate of the Arctic worked for all two weeks. Business projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions were also presented.

Who hands over methane "secondary"?

The representatives of nearly two hundred countries who were going to Glasgow as a result heard that it "will be very difficult" to achieve the objectives of the Parisian agreement. The UN Secretary-General Guterrish told about it, commenting on results of the summit of world leaders. He added that "the most serious problem - the lack of confidence" between developed and developing countries. The countries of "seven" and other players of their circle moved a promise to allocate to developing countries of 100 billion dollars for participation in "green transition" for 2025.

But the problem of trust is connected not only with it. The president Biden returned the USA to the Parisian agreement. But not all agree with this decision that causes concern. In 2024 presidential elections which results can call into question of prospect of climatic policy of the USA again are coming.

Other source of mistrust is hidden in depths the economic interests of the group of the countries of "gold one billion". So, for example, Australia refused to participate in an initiative of reduction of emissions of methane. Against cattle-farmers, power engineering specialists, the coal-mining companies and oil and gas corporations which extract coalbed methane act and export in the form of LNG.

By data for July, export of the Australian coal grew by 26% and gave to economy following the results of the second quarter more than 9 billion dollars of income. Australia in a year extracts about 500 million tons of the power and coked coals, 75% of these volumes go for export. Nearly a quarter of the Australian export of coal fell on China recently. In 2019 the export of coal brought to the country 53 billion dollars or more of 8% of GDP. It is impossible to exclude that by 2025 the coal mining volumes in Australia will grow to 590 million tons.

In the European Union there are divergences too. The euro-ideologist of "green transition" and the head of European Commission Ursula Von der Leien urged participants to take the responsibility for reduction of a carbon trace and said: "In the European Union we will reduce emissions at least by 55% by 2030. We will become climatic neutral by 2050". But some EU countries aren't ready, or isn't able to follow these instructions. For example, Poland persistently continues to extract low-quality coal.

Without "Ilyich's bulb"

"Leaving, turn off the light!" - this unforgettable order from the Soviet past in Glasgow was defiantly broken. Some leading moralists and politicians activists arrived to Scotland by the state, private or corporate planes. Without hesitating, moved a column under kind one hundred cars. Fundamental "power realities" of the modern world too obviously contradict this Soviet slogan calling for economy of electricity of one and all. In Glasgow spoke about coal problems in power much, kind of separating from the facts. From recognition that for development of this electric power many countries are forced to burn coal there is no choice just. But even in these conditions all have an access to electricity not.

According to the World Bank about one billion people do without electricity. Near it is wasteful consumption of energy the leading economies of the world. Great Britain with the population of 67.6 million people consumes annually 154 million tons of oil equivalent (мтнэ) energy in different forms. And India is content 908 мтнэ which should be divided into 1.4 billion people. Such "offsprings" of the British crown as the USA or Canada, manage to consume more than 6.3 tons of oil equivalent on the person in a year, that is is ten times more, than the average inhabitant of the region of the Southern Asia!

But from India expect "restraint" in use of coal in power. The authorities of this country annually connect up to 30 million inhabitants to electricity, than deservedly are proud. But for this purpose it is necessary to use local coal. Regions where electricity is inaccessible to most of the population, are in Africa south of the Sahara, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, other countries and regions.

The International Energy Agency (MEA, International Energy Agency) publishes the report with data on availability of electricity in each country. High on the list MEA - Burundi where electricity provided only 11% of the population. Mali where the share "connected to networks" makes 50.9% is in the 29th place. Kenya (75% connected) holds in rating the 50th place, India (95.2%) – on the 69th place. The list of the countries which are completely provided with the electric power begins with Belgium (91st place), and in rating 204 countries. And practically a half of them has problems with supply with electricity.

And still that who lives in Belgium, including her capital which became Euro-Brussels not to understand that it is constant to have near at hand natural gas. In India, for example, volumes of consumption of propane-butane mix (LPG) in cylinders exceed 10 million tons per year and is in circulation up to 400 million gas cylinders. And still there are Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka. LPG is used both in households, and on transport, and in the commercial sector. And each cylinder is transported within a year dozens of times!

Not across Senkam caps

Security with the electric power doesn't characterize scales of her consumption yet. On these indicators of the country of the world it is considerable to be separated. And it is clear that shower indicators of consumption should be correlated to the population of the countries. (Kw-hour on the person in a year - one million people) enter the first five of consumers Norway (23000 kw-hours – 5.6 million people) and Canada (15546 - 38.5). The United States are in the beginning of the second ten (12984 - 333.5), Japan closes this ten (7820 kw-hours – 125.4 million people).

Russia is at the end of the third ten with an indicator of 6603 kw-hours on the person in a year and the population of 146.2 million people. China on the 52nd place (3927 - 1449.7). The share of the People's Republic of China in world electricity consumption in 2020 made 24%. India is in the modest 108th place (806 kw-hours – 1413.4 million people), and such consumer as Tanzania takes the 137th place with an indicator of only 99 kw-hours on the person in a year at the population of 66 million people. Great Britain has approximately the same population, but shower electricity consumption makes 5130 kw-hours on the person in a year. It seems, time all came to pay bills, but everyone the, separately!

And the USA, as it turned out, this year burned 20% more coal in comparison with last year. As a result received growth of emissions of greenhouse gases by 8%. In these conditions the appeals to developing countries to pay for "green transition" on an equal basis with those who initially created decades a problem of emissions of CO2 and continue mega-consumption of all types of energy and fuel, including coal, sound unconvincingly.

To promise – not to marry

Not accidentally, during coordination of results of a conference one of the most remarkable transformations was undergone by formulations on coal and fossil fuel. India (from coal shares an energy balance about 70%) with assistance of China (from shares about 57%) insisted on easing of this formulation, having suggested to replace in the text of the document "stage-by-stage refusal" for "stage-by-stage reduction" of coal use. The reservation and about "targeted support of the poorest and most vulnerable countries" taking into account their specific circumstances is added.

The climate, availability of resources and investments for their development define a power profile of the country, give the chance to participate in "green transition". Post-Soviet Russia has all reasons to remind of the role in the solution of power problems "the poorest and the most vulnerable". To Glasgow, the countries of Central Asia presented the general pavilion "Central Asia: Five countries, one region, one voice".

This region comparable on climate with India, for decades of transformations of the Soviet period reached different, but very convincing indicators in providing the population with electricity. For example, at Kazakhstan (5600 kw-hours on the person in a year) indicators are comparable with Spain. Turkmenistan (2679) is flush with Turkey, and Kyrgyzstan has (1941) a level of Mexico. We will compare Uzbekistan (1645) to Egypt, and Tajikistan (1480 kw-hours on the person in a year) to Paraguay or Tunisia. For comparison Pakistan on this indicator it is far (three times!) lags behind Tajikistan.

And we him peaceful atom

Summing up the results of COP26, the CEO of Rosatom Aleksei Likhachev said that the conference came to the end with a discussion about whether the nuclear power in carbon balance taking into account exclusively high capacity of the NPP in transition to green economy has to be set off. Russia still only country which mastered commercially technology of production and operation of reactors on fast neutrons. Rosatom is sure that by the end of the current decade this technology can already become visible article of the Russian export. The NPPs on the basis of these technologies conform to the most strict requirements of safety and efficiency, problems of reduction of emissions of CO2.

The market for the Russian atomic technologies is very considerable. China actively develops the nuclear power. England, France, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia intend to build the NPP too. On the way new projects in India, Pakistan, Iran, can be in the DPRK and also the countries of Africa.

Even Brussels which recommended to refuse nuclear power recently "thawed", having posted online the report on impact of the NPP on climate. It appears, during life cycle on indicators of "environmental friendliness" of the NPP doesn't concede to solar and wind power. It is only necessary to add – also it is much more reliable! And as the power engineer Evgeny Gasho noted, "would be deep delusion to consider that the European set of technology and regulatory solutions regarding minimization of carbon emissions is unique or optimum". A big technological game in the field of modern power only begins!

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